Onions are one of the vegetables that are widely consumed in the world, especially with the ease of cultivation and care. Two very suitable dates for Egypt.
In the following report, we explain the most important information about onion cultivation in Egypt
1- Growing onions in the same place for several consecutive years is very dangerous, as white rot, pink rot and neck rot are endemic in the soil.
2- It is recommended to plant onions for two consecutive years in the same land, then change the cultivation in the third year, and return to plant it again in the following year, and so on.
3- Failure to disinfect seedlings and bulbs before planting with a fungicide, which leads to easy infection of root rot.
4- Disinfect the bulbs before planting them in the ground with any disinfectant for the roots, such as Ryzolix, at a rate of 1.5 grams per liter of water, by immersing the seedlings in the solution that was prepared in a barrel for 3 seconds and then taking them out for planting. Excessive nitrogen fertilization leads to twisting and breaking the onion veins .
5- Winter lugs of onions are planted in Upper Egypt during the period from mid-August to the end of September. As for Lower Egypt, planting takes place from the beginning of October until the end of November.
6- In the nursery, it should be taken into account that it is light yellow or heavy and free of salts and the proportion of calcium in it does not exceed 10% so as not to crack the surface of the soil and lead to dryness of the roots and facilitate the uprooting of seedlings without causing damage to them. It must also be free of weeds and diseases, especially white mold disease And pink root disease and smut, taking into account the lack of municipal fertilization, and it is important that the nursery is close to a permanent Source of irrigation away from heaps of municipal manure to avoid infection with the digger.
7- Giza 6 Mohsen is cultivated in the governorates of Upper Egypt, especially in the winter season. The bulbs of this variety are golden yellow in color and flat in shape. It is distinguished by the quality of storage and validity for export to all countries of the world. It is also suitable for the drying industry. This variety is not available in Lower Egypt.
8- Giza 20. It is cultivated in Lower and Upper Egypt governorates in the early winter and summer seasons. It is distinguished by the abundance of the crop and the superior quality in storage, and the color of its bulbs is darker than the previous variety. This variety is characterized by the abundance of the crop, the quality of storage, and the low percentage of bulbs that violate the variety and are exported to European and Arab countries. How many are suitable for the drying industry.
9- Giza red. It is one of the solid bulbs, the color of the crust is dark red and coherent, and the color of the flesh is dark red for all fat leaves in the bulb. The normal storage period is from 7-8 months. The variety is suitable for production conditions in Lower Egypt, Giza, Beni Suef and Fayoum. It is not suitable for drying and is exported to Arab countries.
10- Giza white, and there is “Giza White”, which is a solid onion, the color of the shell is white and coherent, and the color of the meat is bright white. The normal storage period reaches from 8-9 months. The variety is suitable for production conditions in Lower and Upper Egypt. It is used in the drying industry due to the high percentage of total soluble solids in it. It is characterized by The final product of drying is a bright white color and the bulbs of the variety are suitable for human food and export.
11- “Shandawil 1” is a variety under registration and is cultivated in the governorates of Upper Egypt. It is early in maturity and is suitable for early export, as it is about two weeks earlier in maturity than Giza 6 Mohsen, and its bulbs are yellow in color and splayed in shape.
12- Cultivation in basins is carried out in heavy and light lands. The soil must be smoothed and leveled well. The lands are divided into basins with an area of approximately 3 x 4 m. The seeds are planted in a house and covered with a light cover with a soil sap. The cultivation is at a rate of 40-45 kg seed per acre.